The number of Baha’i currently in Iraq are believed to be less than 2 000. The Baha’i religion was banned under the Baath party and members have been particularly oppressed in Iraq from the early 1970s, Baha’i property was confiscated and members of the community ultimately faced prison or execution.
According to Regulation 258 from 1975, Baha’i were denied access to birth and marriage registration, passports, employment, entry into university, and the possibility to buy and sell housing and property. Although this regulation was revoked in 2008, the Baha’i still cannot register their faith on their ID cards and Baha’i people are at risk of statelessness. In order to be issued an ID, Baha’i have to list ‘Muslim’ on identity documents. Without identity documentation, the Baha’i cannot access rights and services related to citizenship, such as education, property ownership and medical care. The majority of Baha’i marriages are not registered officially, so the children of such marriages cannot obtain identification.
Baha’i do not benefit from any recognition or special measures under the Iraqi Constitution, but they are recognised as a religious minority by the KRG.
The individual assessment of whether or not the treatment of individuals under this profile could amount to persecution should take into account the severity and/or repetitiveness of the acts or whether they occur as an accumulation of various measures.
Not all individuals under this profile would face the level of risk required to establish a well-founded fear of persecution. The individual assessment of whether or not there is a reasonable degree of likelihood for the applicant to face persecution should take into account risk-impacting circumstances, such as: (lack of) identity documents, statelessness, area of origin, etc.
Nexus to a reason for persecution
Available information indicates that persecution of this profile is for reasons of religion.