[Targeting, 2.2.1, 3.4.6]
The Shabak form an ethnic group consisting of three tribes: Hariri, Gergeri and Mawsili. Approximately 70 % identify as Shia. The Shabak are largely living in the Ninewa plains.
ISIL’s advance resulted in kidnappings and executions for Shabak who refused to comply with ISIL’s orders.
Besides facing violence from ISIL, the Shabak have been victims of efforts to forcibly alter the demographic balance in their areas of origin in favour of either Arabs or Kurds. The Shabak community is located in an area that is disputed between Erbil and Baghdad. The power struggles between the two governments have affected the Shabak detrimentally and they have faced enormous pressure and harassment from the KRG to assimilate and declare themselves as Kurds.
The individual assessment of whether or not the treatment of individuals under this profile could amount to persecution should take into account the severity and/or repetitiveness of the acts or whether they occur as an accumulation of various measures.
Not all individuals under this profile would face the level of risk required to establish a well-founded fear of persecution. The individual assessment of whether or not there is a reasonable degree of likelihood for the applicant to face persecution should take into account risk-impacting circumstances, such as their area of origin, etc.
Nexus to a reason for persecution
Available information indicates that persecution of this profile is for reasons of race and/or religion (in relation to persecution by ISIL).