This profile includes those working for national and international NGOs.
It is reported that armed groups in Iraq, including official armed groups, pose a threat to humanitarian workers. There are reports of access restrictions and detention, and there have been targeted attacks against humanitarian workers. According to data from the International NGO Safety Organisation, during the period between January and October 2018, there have been 66 reported incidents targeting NGOs in Iraq, the majority being cases of assault (40), followed by arrest and detention (9), direct fire (9), intimidation (4), robbery (3), IED ordnance (1). Two NGO workers died as a result of these incidents during the stated period.
The acts to which individuals under this profile could be exposed are of such severe nature that they would amount to persecution (e.g. assault, killing).
Not all individuals under this profile would face the level of risk required to establish a well-founded fear of persecution. The individual assessment of whether or not there is a reasonable degree of likelihood for the applicant to face persecution should take into account risk-impacting circumstances, such as: gender (see also Women working in the public sphere), nature of activities (e.g. providing assistance to women and children associated with ISIL, see also Persons perceived to be associated with ISIL), region of work/activity, etc.
Nexus to a reason for persecution
Available information indicates that persecution of this profile is for reasons of (imputed) political opinion and/or religion (e.g. when they are accused as takfir by ISIL).