2. Refugee status

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This country guidance is currently under review. In view of the recent significant changes, notably the Taliban takeover, assessments within this document may no longer be valid. When examining the international protection needs of applicants from Afghanistan, please consider the most up-to-date country of origin information available.

This chapter provides a brief outline and general considerations with regard to the assessment of applications for international protection in relation to the elements of the refugee definition (Article 2(d) QD). Furthermore, it proceeds with the analysis of information concerning 20 particular profiles of applicants for international protection in relation to qualification for refugee status. For each profile, and in some cases the relevant sub-profiles, it provides: COI summary, risk analysis (including findings whether the treatment the profile risks would amount to persecution and assessment of the level of risk), and conclusions with regard to the potential nexus to a reason for persecution.

This chapter includes the following sections:
Preliminary remarks
Analysis of particular profiles
2.1. Members of the security forces and pro-government militias
2.2. Government officials, including judges, prosecutors and judicial staff; and those perceived as supporting the government
2.3. Individuals working for foreign military troops or perceived as supporting them
2.4. Religious leaders
2.5. Members of insurgent groups and civilians perceived as supporting them
2.6. Persons fearing forced recruitment by armed groups
2.7. Educational personnel
2.8. Humanitarian workers and healthcare professionals
2.9. Journalists, media workers and human rights defenders
2.10. Children
2.10.1. Violence against children: overview
2.10.2. Child marriage
2.10.3. Child recruitment
2.10.4. Child labour and child trafficking
2.10.5. Education of children and girls in particular
2.10.6. Children without a support network in Afghanistan
2.11. Women
2.11.1. Violence against women and girls: overview
2.11.2. Harmful traditional marriage practices
2.11.3. Women in public roles
2.11.4. Women perceived to have transgressed moral codes
2.11.5. Women perceived as ‘Westernised’
2.11.6. Single women and female heads of households
2.12. Individuals perceived to have transgressed moral codes
2.13. Individuals perceived as ‘Westernised’
2.14. LGBTIQ
2.15. Persons living with disabilities and persons with severe medical issues
2.16. Individuals considered to have committed blasphemy and/or apostasy
2.17. Ethnic and religious minorities
2.17.1. Individuals of Hazara ethnicity
2.17.2. Shia, including Ismaili
2.17.3. Hindus and Sikhs
2.17.4 Baha’i
2.18. Individuals involved in blood feuds and land disputes
2.18.1. Blood feuds
2.18.2. Land disputes
2.19. Individuals accused of ordinary crimes
2.20. Individuals who were born in Iran or Pakistan and/or who lived there for a long period of time
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